Recent reports have observed significant progress in conflict prevention and peace building. In its 2005 yearbook, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) counted 19 major conflicts.’ The Peace and Conflict 2005 report of Monty Marshall and Ted Gurr showed a marked decrease of major armed conflicts in the Post Cold War era.2 . Mack attributes these improvements to the end of colonialism (colonial wars made up 60-100% of all international conflicts, depending on the year), the end of the Cold War (one third of all conflicts were proxy wars), and to the upsurge of international activities designed to stop ongoing wars and to prevent new ones.
Peacemaking, keeping and building may nqt have the punch and the means of national security; it is receiving an increasing amo6nt of attention in education,research and politics. Indicative is the growing number of Master and PhD programs, new publications, and more research at universities and think tanks. The number of peer reviewed journals covering different facets of peacebuilding doubled since 1992. Peacebuilding has become embedded in the organizational theory and praxis of national governments, nongovernmental organizations and regional and global intergovernmental organizations. It became part of’the official discourse, when the UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali (1 992) introduced the concept of postconflict peacebuilding in the Agendafor Peace. The agenda specified four areas of action, which taken together, were presented as a coherent contribution towards securing peace: